Explanation of John Bedini's Formation of            Negative Resistors in Batteries              By Tom Bearden 4-26-00         First we must include the usual warning that the experimenter assumes all    legal responsibilities for his experiments, at his own volition. This    author assumes no responsibilities or liabilities for such actions.         John has kindly given his permission for me to explain his use of the lead    acid battery and how he gets the vacuum to contribute excess energy to the    battery and to the circuit. I'll discuss the battery a bit, very informally    because I don't have a lot of time to go back and look up all the    references, etc. and prepare a formal paper. But we'll cover the gist of it    so you can understand how John uses batteries and switches them in his    units, and why he does it the way he does. We'll point out the processes    that are involved in his methodology, and why he can use a lead acid    battery to produce COP1.0 in perfect compliance with the laws of physics,    thermodynamics, and the conservation of energy law. One must use a    combination of electrodynamics and particle physics to grasp these    processes and mechanisms, because classical EM theory does not include the    active vacuum interaction, even though it's been clearly proven    (theoretically and experimentally) in particle physics for decades.         Vacuum energy already powers every electrical circuit and every electrical    load today, and always has done so from the beginning. Contrary to the    received view, extraction of usable EM energy from the vacuum is the    easiest thing in all the world to do, and it is ubiquitous to all our    circuits and power systems. All the coal, oil, and natural gas ever burned    in powerplants added not a single watt to the powerline. All that energy    input from the fuel combustion was used only to continuously restore the    source dipoles in the generators, dipoles that our scientists and engineers    unwittingly design the external circuits to keep destroying. The source    dipole, once established, was and is a negative resistor of enormous    power that has powered every electrical circuit and load from the    beginning. As we shall see, Bedini discovered how to make a negative    resistor right inside the battery itself.         Every electrodynamicist already assumes (and utilizes) the fact that you    can freely change the potential energy of any EM system, at will. It's    called regauging. E.g., Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics, second    edition (and any other important EM book one chooses), applies arbitrary    Lorentz regauging to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations, changing them to a    new set erroneously said to be identical to the others in every way. They    are not. Specifically, that little change (symmetrical regauging after    first Lorenz in 1867 and later H.A. Lorentz), simply discards all open    Maxwellian systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium with the active    vacuum. In short, it arbitrarily discards all overunity EM systems,    including those that could permissibly capture and use energy from the    active vacuum to power themselves and their loads simultaneously. A priori,    such Maxwellian systems are far from thermodynamic equilibrium in the    vacuum flux -- much as a windmill is out of equilibrium with the wind's    energy exchange with it.         First, to understand John's work one must be aware that there are several    currents in a lead acid battery, not just one. For our purposes we will    need just two: the heavy lead-type ion current in the battery, and the    electron current in the battery but also commuting into the external    circuit.         Note particularly that the electrons communicate between the inside of the    battery (e.g., the plates) and the external circuit, but the lead ions do    not. There is thus an interface and a sharp separation between the electron    current and the ion current.         Here's the point everyone is missing. Check the mass-to-charge ratio of    each of the two currents. (I have it somewhere, from calculating it years    ago, but have no time to search for it again. So someone should look up the    numbers again and add them up; it's straightforward.). As I recall, the    lead ions' m/q ratio is several hundred thousand times the m/q ratio of the    electrons. For our purposes here, all we need to know is that the m/q ratio    for the lead ions is very much bigger than the m/q ratio for the electrons.         So there is obviously a hysteresis (time delay) in the response of the    massive ion current to far less massive electron currents that interact and    try to change the ion current and its momentum. This time-delay in ion    response to electron urging can be adroitly manipulated and used to cause    the vacuum to add energy to the ions and also to the electrons. In short,    the delay can be manipulated to freely regauge the system, freely    changing its potential energy, and dramatically increasing how much    potential energy is available for battery recharging and how much is    available for powering the external circuit (loads and losses).         Instead of thinking of the energy John inputs to the battery as the    powering energy, one must think of it as triggering and timing energy    which initiates certain other key interactions to occur. These additional    interactions then add lots of additional energy to the ions and the    electrons, all for free or nearly so. In short, John switches' and    triggers certain kinds of vacuum interactions, including the highly    specialized formation of a negative resistor in the battery itself. He then    triggers that negative resistor in certain ways to increase its    functioning even further.         John's method does the following: (1) It forms a true negative resistor in    a most unexpected way, inside a common lead acid battery, (2) it uses that    negative resistor to extract excess energy from the vacuum and furnish it    both to the ions in charging mode and to the electrons in load powering    mode, and (3) it adds several other stimuli which increase the    amplification of the negative resistor and further enhance the effect,    increasing the excess energy extracted from the vacuum and collected in the    charging process and also in the powering process.         Specifically, the delay in ion response can be manipulated to place the    battery in ion recharging mode while the signal pulse electrons are    simultaneously placed in external circuit powering mode. By manipulating    the hysteresis and adroitly timing the electron pulses and pulse widths,    one can break the forced Lorentz symmetry of the excitation discharge in a    usually closed current loop containing both the battery's source dipole and    the external load. This is possible since John's method deliberately opens    the loop so that the vacuum energy enters freely, increasing the    potentialization (energy collection) upon the ions and the electrons as    well.         Suppose we hit a battery's terminals with an instantaneous leading edge    rise of a pulse of electrons and potential. Let us assume the hit is in    the battery-charging mode. The electrons drive in instantly, trying to    force the heavy ions to start moving in the charging direction. For a    moment the lead ions just sit there, and then very slowly (compared to the    electrons!) start to reluctantly move in the recharging mode. During that    ion response lag time, the electrons continue to furiously rush in and    pile-up on the plates. The charge density sharply increases on the plates    in that pile-up where the charges are squeezing together (clustering). So    now we have a much higher potential suddenly rising in the squeezed charge    cluster, because of the increased charge density arising there.         Refer to E.T. Whittaker, On the Partial Differential Equations of    Mathematical Physics, Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355.    Whittaker shows us that a scalar potential is not at all what they taught    us in EM theory 101. If one hasn't read Whittaker 1903, one will need to do    so.         As Whittaker shows, the scalar potential (actually its reaction cross    section is what even Whittaker is decomposing) identically is a harmonic    set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wavepairs, where each pair is a phase    conjugate pair. In short, a scalar potential identically is a    multivectorial, multiwave entity (but comprised of longitudinally polarized    EM waves, and those waves come in bidirectional pairs!). In fact, because    in the phase conjugate pair one wave is time-forward and the other is    time-reversed, time-reversal and time-forward perturbations occur paired    and simultaneously in nature's electrodynamics. This is erroneously    omitted, however, in Maxwellian electrodynamics theory.         Anyway, the scalar potential isn't even a scalar entity. Since Whittaker    1903, the proof has been in the literature nearly a century and it has just    been ignored!         Since the QM vacuum contains and is a virtual particle flux (that's one way    to model it) and thus contains energy, it is (or can be modeled as) a    special kind of scalar potential. Every EM potential is in fact a change    to the vacuum energy density. Any EM potential in a circuit is a change to    the ambient vacuum potential or to some intermediate potential that is.    Rigorously, any increased EM potential in a circuit is a special kind of    negative resistor, since extra bidirectional, flowing EM energy from the    vacuum has been added to the circuit. However, electrodynamicists have not    recognized that regauging produces a true negative resistor. Very large    bidirectional energy flows (very large potentials) can be freely added to    the circuit at any time. However, to use these negative resistors so that    we extract usable energy from them, we have to learn how to more carefully    use bidirectional potentials so that we apply them adroitly in two opposing    directions simultaneously.         No textbook or professor ever calculates the potential itself, but only its    reaction cross section. Consider that for awhile; it's quite rigorous. We    have been and are taught to calculate only how much energy is diverged from    the potential, around a little unit point static charge (assumed), and that    little swirl-around energy is then supposed to be the potential. It    isn't. The little swirl-around is the energy diverged from the potential.    Calling that the potential is analogous to mistaking a tiny little    whirlpool in a river as the entire river. Same error.         For more than a century the electricians have erroneously defined the    scalar potential at a point as the amount of energy diverged from it    around a little fixed unit point static charge at that point The amount of    energy swirled or diverted from all those bidirectional LWs around a    little unit point static charge fixed at a point, does indeed have a    scalar magnitude. For fixed conditions, there's a fixed amount of energy in    the swirl-around at any moment. But that magnitude of the energy in the    swirl isn't the potential; it's what's diverted from the potential.         Obviously it's a major non sequitur to mistake the potential for a tiny    fraction of itself.         As a set of bidirectional LWs, the potential is an ensemble of mighty,    rushing rivers of EM energy, with paired rivers flowing in opposite    directions. From those rushing rivers of energy comprising any nonzero    static potential, you can collect as much energy as you wish, just by    adding more intercepting/collecting charges. The equation is already known    and very simple: W = (phi)q, where W is the total energy collected    (diverged) from a potential of reaction cross section phi, upon    intercepting charges q. Fix the phi to a constant value, then add as much q    as is needed to have W reach any value you wish. One can collect a billion    watts of power from a millivolt, e.g., given enough intercepting charges q.    The magnitude of the potential isn't fixed at any point, because the    potential is a set of flows involving the entire vacuum of the universe.         Anyway, back to our battery that we just popped with an electron pulse.    Now we have a higher potential in that pileup of electrons onto the    interface with the ions, urging the ions forward. Well, the potential    energy being collected on those ions (i.e., diverged around them from the    potential's multiwaves) is given by W = (phi) q, where W is the energy    collected from the new and dramatically increased potential with reaction    cross section (phi), upon charges q -- in this case, upon the ions. And    also upon the piled up electrons on the circuit side of the battery plate,    because the waves comprising the potential run in both directions.         Set a potential in the middle of a transmission line, and it takes off like    two scalded hogs in both directions simultaneously, thereby revealing its    bidirectional vectorial nature. The new, increased potential from the pile-    up at the interface between electrons and ions in the battery takes off    like two scalded hogs in both directions -- into the battery onto the ions    and out into the external circuit onto the electrons.         But that increased potential at the pileup is actually a change to the    ambient potential of the vacuum. It is part of the vacuum and a    reorganization of it, reaching across the universe in all directions (or    speeding out there in all directions at light speed).         Since the internal LW waves comprising the increased potential at the pile-    up are bidirectional, we have added energy to both the electrons out there    in the circuit and to the ions in there in the battery. Since the electrons    react (relax and move) so much faster than the ions, we can now be drawing    power in the external circuit and its load, due to the instant response of    the overpotentialized electrons, while we are still urging those    overpotentialized ions into motion in a recharging direction.         For the purist, electrons really move on the average with only a very small    drift velocity in the circuit, often on the order of a few inches per hour.    However, that average drift is comprised of an enormous distribution of    electron velocities, collisions, etc. So what we have actually done is    dramatically change that distribution underlying the drift velocity. The    current in a circuit is not as simple as the physical movement of    electrons like marbles through a hollow pipe, even though loosely one    usually uses that kind of language.         I sent you the IC-2000 paper, in which we pointed out that there is no such    thing as an isolated charge anyway, when you consider the shadowing virtual    charges of opposite sign in the vacuum that cluster around it. That is    already well-established in QM theory. So an isolated charge really is a    set of dipoles, where each dipole is comprised of a piece of the observed    charge and one of the clustering virtual charges. Each of those dipoles    contains a potential between its ends, and thus identically generates a    bidirectional LW flow across the universe, altering (and structuring and    organizing) the entire vacuum.         In particle physics, it has been known for more than 40 years (couple of    Nobel Prizes awarded and all that) that any dipole is a broken symmetry in    the fierce virtual energy exchange between the active vacuum and the dipole    charges. By definition of broken symmetry, this means that some of that    virtual disordered energy continuously absorbed from the vacuum by the    dipole's charges, is NOT radiated back as disordered virtual photons.    Instead, it is self-ordered by the charges. Open systems not in equilibrium    with their active environment -- in this case the active vacuum -- are    permitted to do that, and a dipole is such an open system in disequilibrium    with the active vacuum. So the re-ordered component of the energy emitted    from the charges is radiated back as observable EM field energy flow, which    does interact macroscopically and observably with charges.         Rigorously, this charges pile-up at the plate interface between electrons    and ions has asymmetrically self-regauged the system including both the    recharging ions inside the battery and the electron current out in the    external circuit now forced into powering mode. The reorganized vacuum has    added excess energy to the entire system, the excess being energy which was    extracted from the vacuum by that pile-up of charges, each with its    associated clustered virtual charges, so that the charge pile-up acts as a    cluster of dipoles.         We have specified a situation and process which asymmetrically self-    regauges the system, using excess energy from the vacuum. The increased    potential at the pile-up is in fact a direct change to the entire vacuum.    It is an organization of the entire vacuum. To the system the change in the    vacuum is negentropic because the vacuum energy has been organized into a    bidirectional set of flows. Such self-organization is permissible in an    open system not in equilibrium with its external active environment. All    this is based on rigorous, proven physics, but it is not in the hoary old    classical electrodynamics, which contains a great many foundations errors    and omissions.         The set of bidirectional energy flows involving the entire vacuum and    comprising that increased potential at the pile-up, represents a re-    organization of the local vacuum to a more ordered state. In short,    negentropy. The pile-up of charges and its associated potential    (negentropic reorganization of the vacuum) constitute an active negative    resistor.         This is the way that John creates a negative resistor directly inside a    lead acid storage battery (and in several other kinds of batteries also).    The pile-up becomes a true negative resistor, extracting additional biwave    flowing energy from the external vacuum. The negative resistor receives    energy from the vacuum in that half of the unobserved internal LWs that    flow from every point in external space to the pile-up. The negative    resistor then sends that organized energy out into the circuit in that    half of the potential's internal LWs that flow out into the battery and in    the opposite direction into the external circuit and on out to every other    point in the universe.         One should again check Whittaker 1903 and think about that extra pile-up    potential as a harmonic set of bidirectional EM longitudinal wavepairs,    until one understands this active negative resistance effect clearly.         The absolutely permissible, justified, scientific result is that the energy    of the system is freely and dramatically increased (the system is regauged)    from the negentropic vacuum. The ions in that increased energy flow into    the battery take on more energy than we ourselves input, with the excess    being taken from the reorganized vacuum by the action of the negative    resistor formed at the pile-up. The charges in the pile-up took on more    energy, taken from the vacuum, and the higher potential also flows at the    speed of light back out the terminals along the conductors, potentializing    the surface charges and increasing the intercepted energy diverged into the    conductors by the surface charges. Since a back-lash emf exists from the    higher potential at the back-up and the beginning potential in the external    circuit, current flows in the external circuit (1) in circuit-powering    mode, and (2) with greater energy collected upon the electrons from the    increased Poynting energy flow diverged into the circuit conductors.         John puts in some electrons and potential and makes a negative resistor.    The action of the negative resistor then overpotentializes both the    battery-charging ions and the circuit-powering electrons. The vacuum    furnishes the extra potential energy. So John now has lots more energy in    the circuit than he himself put in, both to recharge the battery and power    the load.         The net result is that the system eats its cake and has it too, courtesy of    having produced a negative resistor and tricked the active vacuum to    momentarily give it lots of excess energy (potential energy). It collects    some of that excess energy upon both the recharging ions and the circuit    electrons back-forced to power the circuit. Note that the formation of the    negative resistor actually produced in the external circuit a back emf    which is of the circuit powering type, even though in the battery the ion    current is still moving and accelerating in the charging position -    - exactly opposed to the electron current!         So the timing and negative resistor effect simultaneously introduce    additional energy extracted from the vacuum to (1) the battery charging    process, and (2) the load powering process in the external circuit.         Then we deliberately cut off the pulse sharply, with the ions now moving in    the charge direction and with the electrons in the external circuit    powering the load. The sharp cutoff rate produces a very interesting effect    here also, if we end it just precisely while most of the pile-up (and    higher potential) still exists at the plate-ion interface. In that case,    Lenz's law applies due to the sharp cutoff and it aids us, since    momentarily the negative resistor potential is even further dramatically    increased by the Lenz reaction! So even more potential energy momentarily    surges out onto the circuit electrons in the powering the circuit mode,    and even more potential energy simultaneously surges onto the ions in the    charging the battery mode.         The result of this second effect is that (1) the negative resistor is again    increased, (2) even more energy is furnished from the vacuum to the    battery-charging process, and (3) even more energy is furnished from the    vacuum to the load-powering process.         In short, the system suddenly and remarkably increases the negative    resistor effect, self-regauging itself for the second consecutive time, and    increasing the excess energy extracted from the vacuum!         This second surge of excess energy comes directly from the vacuum, from the    suddenly increased negative resistor, via those suddenly increased    bidirectional longitudinal EM wave energy flows between the pile-up and    every point in all the surrounding space. That's what a bidirectional set    of wavepairs means; observable energy flows from the pile-up (source    dipole) to every point in external space, and from every point in external    space virtual (complex) energy flows to the source dipole.         That is the second case where we cause the external circuit to be    regauged and change its potential energy freely, and we cause the    internal ions to be regauged and change their potential energy freely.         Again we accent that electrodynamicists already assume that any EM system    can freely change its energy at any time; it's called regauging. It is    inexplicable why electrodynamicists have not focused upon actually    producing self-regauging circuits which asymmetrically discharge their    freely increased energy, as John has done, so that the dissipated energy is    used to recharge the battery while also powering the load. Instead, the    electrodynamicists continue to give us regauging circuits which    symmetrically discharge their freely increased energy, so that half the    dissipated energy is used to destroy the source dipole of the generator or    battery while the other half is dissipated in the external loads and    losses.         On the other hand, John uses half the excess regauging energy from the    negative resistor to restore the battery (source) dipole, and uses the    other half to power the load and losses simultaneously. So he    asymmetrically discharges the free excitation energy received from the    vacuum via the negative resistor.         But back to John's battery process. Now we have the Lenz effect pulse    finally removed and the ions moving in charging mode but slowing down now.    Since the Lenz law effect dies rapidly, we have a rapid resumption of    draw of electrons from the pile-up into the external circuit to power it.    But for a bit, the ions only start to slow and have not yet stopped    completely. They overshoot because of their sluggishness, and keep on    charging the battery a moment longer. During this third moment, the    external circuit is still being powered even though the battery is still in    charging mode.         When all these excess energy mechanisms are added, one finds that excess    energy can be collected from the vacuum by the negative resistor and used    appropriately to produce a system with a permissible overall COP1.0    performance. The dramatic difference in John's method, from the    conventional method, is that in John's method the same current through the    load does not pass back through the back emf of the source dipole negative    resistor to continually destroy it. On the contrary, he inverts the phase    of the current through the source dipole negative resistor to continually    restore it.         There are several other schemes that can be used at this point. If the    follow-on pulsing etc. is matched to again initiate the effects discussed,    one can continue to draw power in the circuit while charging the battery,    etc. for about a succession of the three periods of time: (1) the initial    hysteresis pileup, formation of the negative resistor, and associated    effects, (2) the following Lenz law reaction, increase of the negative    resistor, and associated effects, and (3) the follow-on period of    simultaneous charging the battery and powering the circuit from the pile-up    while the overshoot of the ions is still slowing and ending.         One trick John sometimes uses is to time the next pulse front to arrive    just at the time that the ions are almost but not quite stopped in their    overshoot charging mode and are preparing to reverse into discharge mode    (following the electrons in the external circuit, which are already in that    mode). With the exact timing, the whole situation starts over. There are    several other variations that John has also used and found effective.         In developing this methodology, John long ago built various controllers and    timers, and experimented with a variety of pulses, pulse widths, and timing    to get it all just right for a specific battery of interest. He had one    little battery-powered motor -- an inefficient little beast with only about    35-40% normal efficiency -- which continuously ran off the battery    seemingly (actually, off the excess energy from the negative resistor    created and manipulated in the battery) for a couple of years. The motor    represented a load continually being driven by the excess energy    extracted from the vacuum by the negative resistor continually created in    the battery. He recharged the battery and ran the motor directly off vacuum    energy, using the precise set of negative resistor effects just discussed. This is part one of a two part article.Note: Copied from wayback machine version of http://www.icehouse.net/john34/index101.htm website which is now gone. These articles are meant to preserve these notes and studies for future generations. - Alternate Energy - 39411AlternateEnergyCollection

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Explanation of John Bedini’s Formation of Negative Resistors in Batteries Pt1

Explanation of John Bedini's Formation of

            Negative Resistors in Batteries

              By Tom Bearden 4-26-00

     

    First we must include the usual warning that the experimenter assumes all

    legal responsibilities for his experiments, at his own volition. This

    author assumes no responsibilities or liabilities for such actions.

     

    John has kindly given his permission for me to explain his use of the lead

    acid battery and how he gets the vacuum to contribute excess energy to the

    battery and to the circuit. I'll discuss the battery a bit, very informally

    because I don't have a lot of time to go back and look up all the

    references, etc. and prepare a formal paper. But we'll cover the gist of it

    so you can understand how John uses batteries and switches them in his

    units, and why he does it the way he does. We'll point out the processes

    that are involved in his methodology, and why he can use a lead acid

    battery to produce COP1.0 in perfect compliance with the laws of physics,

    thermodynamics, and the conservation of energy law. One must use a

    combination of electrodynamics and particle physics to grasp these

    processes and mechanisms, because classical EM theory does not include the

    active vacuum interaction, even though it's been clearly proven

    (theoretically and experimentally) in particle physics for decades.

     

    Vacuum energy already powers every electrical circuit and every electrical

    load today, and always has done so from the beginning. Contrary to the

    received view, extraction of usable EM energy from the vacuum is the

    easiest thing in all the world to do, and it is ubiquitous to all our

    circuits and power systems. All the coal, oil, and natural gas ever burned

    in powerplants added not a single watt to the powerline. All that energy

    input from the fuel combustion was used only to continuously restore the

    source dipoles in the generators, dipoles that our scientists and engineers

    unwittingly design the external circuits to keep destroying. The source

    dipole, once established, was and is a "negative resistor" of enormous

    power that has powered every electrical circuit and load from the

    beginning. As we shall see, Bedini discovered how to make a negative

    resistor right inside the battery itself.

     

    Every electrodynamicist already assumes (and utilizes) the fact that you

    can freely change the potential energy of any EM system, at will. It's

    called "regauging". E.g., Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics, second

    edition (and any other important EM book one chooses), applies arbitrary

    Lorentz "regauging" to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations, changing them to a

    new set erroneously said to be identical to the others in every way. They

    are not. Specifically, that little change (symmetrical regauging after

    first Lorenz in 1867 and later H.A. Lorentz), simply discards all open

    Maxwellian systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium with the active

    vacuum. In short, it arbitrarily discards all overunity EM systems,

    including those that could permissibly capture and use energy from the

    active vacuum to power themselves and their loads simultaneously. A priori,

    such Maxwellian systems are far from thermodynamic equilibrium in the

    vacuum flux -- much as a windmill is out of equilibrium with the wind's

    energy exchange with it.

     

    First, to understand John's work one must be aware that there are several

    currents in a lead acid battery, not just one. For our purposes we will

    need just two: the heavy lead-type ion current in the battery, and the

    electron current in the battery but also commuting into the external

    circuit.

     

    Note particularly that the electrons communicate between the inside of the

    battery (e.g., the plates) and the external circuit, but the lead ions do

    not. There is thus an interface and a sharp separation between the electron

    current and the ion current.

     

    Here's the point everyone is missing. Check the mass-to-charge ratio of

    each of the two currents. (I have it somewhere, from calculating it years

    ago, but have no time to search for it again. So someone should look up the

    numbers again and add them up; it's straightforward.). As I recall, the

    lead ions' m/q ratio is several hundred thousand times the m/q ratio of the

    electrons. For our purposes here, all we need to know is that the m/q ratio

    for the lead ions is very much bigger than the m/q ratio for the electrons.

     

    So there is obviously a hysteresis (time delay) in the response of the

    massive ion current to far less massive electron currents that interact and

    try to change the ion current and its momentum. This time-delay in ion

    response to electron urging can be adroitly manipulated and used to cause

    the vacuum to add energy to the ions and also to the electrons. In short,

    the delay can be manipulated to freely "regauge" the system, freely

    changing its potential energy, and dramatically increasing how much

    potential energy is available for battery recharging and how much is

    available for powering the external circuit (loads and losses).

     

    Instead of thinking of the energy John inputs to the battery as the

    "powering" energy, one must think of it as "triggering" and "timing" energy

    which initiates certain other key interactions to occur. These additional

    interactions then add lots of additional energy to the ions and the

    electrons, all for free or nearly so. In short, John "switches'" and

    "triggers" certain kinds of vacuum interactions, including the highly

    specialized formation of a negative resistor in the battery itself. He then

    "triggers" that negative resistor in certain ways to increase its

    functioning even further.

     

    John's method does the following: (1) It forms a true negative resistor in

    a most unexpected way, inside a common lead acid battery, (2) it uses that

    negative resistor to extract excess energy from the vacuum and furnish it

    both to the ions in charging mode and to the electrons in load powering

    mode, and (3) it adds several other stimuli which increase the

    amplification of the negative resistor and further enhance the effect,

    increasing the excess energy extracted from the vacuum and collected in the

    charging process and also in the powering process.

     

    Specifically, the delay in ion response can be manipulated to place the

    battery in ion recharging mode while the signal pulse electrons are

    simultaneously placed in external circuit powering mode. By manipulating

    the hysteresis and adroitly timing the electron pulses and pulse widths,

    one can break the forced Lorentz symmetry of the excitation discharge in a

    usually closed current loop containing both the battery's source dipole and

    the external load. This is possible since John's method deliberately opens

    the loop so that the vacuum energy enters freely, increasing the

    potentialization (energy collection) upon the ions and the electrons as

    well.

     

    Suppose we "hit" a battery's terminals with an instantaneous leading edge

    rise of a pulse of electrons and potential. Let us assume the "hit" is in

    the "battery-charging" mode. The electrons drive in instantly, trying to

    force the heavy ions to start moving in the charging direction. For a

    moment the lead ions just sit there, and then very slowly (compared to the

    electrons!) start to reluctantly move in the recharging mode. During that

    "ion response lag" time, the electrons continue to furiously rush in and

    pile-up on the plates. The charge density sharply increases on the plates

    in that pile-up where the charges are "squeezing" together (clustering). So

    now we have a much higher potential suddenly rising in the squeezed charge

    cluster, because of the increased charge density arising there.

     

    Refer to E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations of

    Mathematical Physics, Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355.

    Whittaker shows us that a "scalar" potential is not at all what they taught

    us in EM theory 101. If one hasn't read Whittaker 1903, one will need to do

    so.

     

    As Whittaker shows, the scalar potential (actually its reaction cross

    section is what even Whittaker is decomposing) identically is a harmonic

    set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wavepairs, where each pair is a phase

    conjugate pair. In short, a "scalar" potential identically is a

    multivectorial, multiwave entity (but comprised of longitudinally polarized

    EM waves, and those waves come in bidirectional pairs!). In fact, because

    in the phase conjugate pair one wave is "time-forward" and the other is

    "time-reversed", time-reversal and time-forward perturbations occur paired

    and simultaneously in nature's electrodynamics. This is erroneously

    omitted, however, in Maxwellian electrodynamics theory.

     

    Anyway, the "scalar" potential isn't even a scalar entity. Since Whittaker

    1903, the proof has been in the literature nearly a century and it has just

    been ignored!

     

    Since the QM vacuum contains and is a virtual particle flux (that's one way

    to model it) and thus contains energy, it is (or can be modeled as) a

    special kind of "scalar" potential. Every EM potential is in fact a change

    to the vacuum energy density. Any EM potential in a circuit is a change to

    the ambient vacuum potential or to some intermediate potential that is.

    Rigorously, any increased EM potential in a circuit is a special kind of

    negative resistor, since extra bidirectional, flowing EM energy from the

    vacuum has been added to the circuit. However, electrodynamicists have not

    recognized that regauging produces a true negative resistor. Very large

    bidirectional energy flows (very large potentials) can be freely added to

    the circuit at any time. However, to use these negative resistors so that

    we extract usable energy from them, we have to learn how to more carefully

    use bidirectional potentials so that we apply them adroitly in two opposing

    directions simultaneously.

     

    No textbook or professor ever calculates the potential itself, but only its

    reaction cross section. Consider that for awhile; it's quite rigorous. We

    have been and are taught to calculate only how much energy is diverged from

    the potential, around a little unit point static charge (assumed), and that

    little "swirl-around" energy is then supposed to be "the potential". It

    isn't. The little swirl-around is the energy diverged from the potential.

    Calling that "the potential" is analogous to mistaking a tiny little

    whirlpool in a river as the entire river. Same error.

     

    For more than a century the electricians have erroneously "defined" the

    scalar potential "at a point" as the amount of energy diverged from it

    around a little fixed unit point static charge at that point The amount of

    energy "swirled or diverted from all those bidirectional LWs around a

    little unit point static charge" fixed at a point, does indeed have a

    scalar magnitude. For fixed conditions, there's a fixed amount of energy in

    the "swirl-around" at any moment. But that "magnitude of the energy in the

    swirl" isn't the potential; it's what's diverted from the potential.

     

    Obviously it's a major non sequitur to mistake "the" potential for a tiny

    fraction of itself.

     

    As a set of bidirectional LWs, the potential is an ensemble of mighty,

    rushing rivers of EM energy, with paired rivers flowing in opposite

    directions. From those rushing rivers of energy comprising any nonzero

    "static" potential, you can collect as much energy as you wish, just by

    adding more intercepting/collecting charges. The equation is already known

    and very simple: W = (phi)q, where W is the total energy collected

    (diverged) from a potential of reaction cross section phi, upon

    intercepting charges q. Fix the phi to a constant value, then add as much q

    as is needed to have W reach any value you wish. One can collect a billion

    watts of power from a millivolt, e.g., given enough intercepting charges q.

    The "magnitude" of the potential isn't fixed at any point, because the

    potential is a set of flows involving the entire vacuum of the universe.

     

    Anyway, back to our battery that we just "popped" with an electron pulse.

    Now we have a higher potential in that pileup of electrons onto the

    interface with the ions, urging the ions forward. Well, the potential

    energy being collected on those ions (i.e., diverged around them from the

    potential's multiwaves) is given by W = (phi) q, where W is the energy

    collected from the new and dramatically increased potential with reaction

    cross section (phi), upon charges q -- in this case, upon the ions. And

    also upon the piled up electrons on the circuit side of the battery plate,

    because the waves comprising the potential run in both directions.

     

    Set a potential in the middle of a transmission line, and it takes off like

    two scalded hogs in both directions simultaneously, thereby revealing its

    bidirectional vectorial nature. The new, increased potential from the pile-

    up at the interface between electrons and ions in the battery takes off

    like two scalded hogs in both directions -- into the battery onto the ions

    and out into the external circuit onto the electrons.

     

    But that increased potential at the pileup is actually a change to the

    ambient potential of the vacuum. It is part of the vacuum and a

    reorganization of it, reaching across the universe in all directions (or

    speeding out there in all directions at light speed).

     

    Since the internal LW waves comprising the increased potential at the pile-

    up are bidirectional, we have added energy to both the electrons out there

    in the circuit and to the ions in there in the battery. Since the electrons

    react (relax and move) so much faster than the ions, we can now be drawing

    power in the external circuit and its load, due to the instant response of

    the overpotentialized electrons, while we are still urging those

    overpotentialized ions into motion in a recharging direction.

     

    For the purist, electrons really move on the average with only a very small

    drift velocity in the circuit, often on the order of a few inches per hour.

    However, that average "drift" is comprised of an enormous distribution of

    electron velocities, collisions, etc. So what we have actually done is

    dramatically change that distribution underlying the drift velocity. The

    "current" in a circuit is not as simple as the physical movement of

    electrons like marbles through a hollow pipe, even though loosely one

    usually uses that kind of language.

     

    I sent you the IC-2000 paper, in which we pointed out that there is no such

    thing as an isolated charge anyway, when you consider the shadowing virtual

    charges of opposite sign in the vacuum that cluster around it. That is

    already well-established in QM theory. So an "isolated charge" really is a

    set of dipoles, where each dipole is comprised of a piece of the observed

    charge and one of the clustering virtual charges. Each of those dipoles

    contains a potential between its ends, and thus identically generates a

    bidirectional LW flow across the universe, altering (and structuring and

    organizing) the entire vacuum.

     

    In particle physics, it has been known for more than 40 years (couple of

    Nobel Prizes awarded and all that) that any dipole is a broken symmetry in

    the fierce virtual energy exchange between the active vacuum and the dipole

    charges. By definition of broken symmetry, this means that some of that

    virtual disordered energy continuously absorbed from the vacuum by the

    dipole's charges, is NOT radiated back as disordered virtual photons.

    Instead, it is self-ordered by the charges. Open systems not in equilibrium

    with their active environment -- in this case the active vacuum -- are

    permitted to do that, and a dipole is such an open system in disequilibrium

    with the active vacuum. So the re-ordered component of the energy emitted

    from the charges is radiated back as observable EM field energy flow, which

    does interact macroscopically and observably with charges.

     

    Rigorously, this "charges pile-up" at the plate interface between electrons

    and ions has asymmetrically self-regauged the system including both the

    recharging ions inside the battery and the electron current out in the

    external circuit now forced into powering mode. The reorganized vacuum has

    added excess energy to the entire system, the excess being energy which was

    extracted from the vacuum by that pile-up of charges, each with its

    associated clustered virtual charges, so that the charge pile-up acts as a

    cluster of dipoles.

     

    We have specified a situation and process which asymmetrically self-

    regauges the system, using excess energy from the vacuum. The increased

    potential at the pile-up is in fact a direct change to the entire vacuum.

    It is an organization of the entire vacuum. To the system the change in the

    vacuum is negentropic because the vacuum energy has been organized into a

    bidirectional set of flows. Such self-organization is permissible in an

    open system not in equilibrium with its external active environment. All

    this is based on rigorous, proven physics, but it is not in the hoary old

    classical electrodynamics, which contains a great many foundations errors

    and omissions.

     

    The set of bidirectional energy flows involving the entire vacuum and

    comprising that increased potential at the pile-up, represents a re-

    organization of the local vacuum to a more ordered state. In short,

    negentropy. The pile-up of charges and its associated potential

    (negentropic reorganization of the vacuum) constitute an active negative

    resistor.

     

    This is the way that John creates a negative resistor directly inside a

    lead acid storage battery (and in several other kinds of batteries also).

    The pile-up becomes a true negative resistor, extracting additional biwave

    flowing energy from the external vacuum. The negative resistor receives

    energy from the vacuum in that half of the unobserved internal LWs that

    flow from every point in external space to the pile-up. The negative

    resistor then sends that organized energy out into the "circuit" in that

    half of the potential's internal LWs that flow out into the battery and in

    the opposite direction into the external circuit and on out to every other

    point in the universe.

     

    One should again check Whittaker 1903 and think about that extra "pile-up"

    potential as a harmonic set of bidirectional EM longitudinal wavepairs,

    until one understands this active negative resistance effect clearly.

     

    The absolutely permissible, justified, scientific result is that the energy

    of the system is freely and dramatically increased (the system is regauged)

    from the negentropic vacuum. The ions in that increased energy flow into

    the battery take on more energy than we ourselves "input", with the excess

    being taken from the reorganized vacuum by the action of the negative

    resistor formed at the pile-up. The charges in the pile-up took on more

    energy, taken from the vacuum, and the higher potential also flows at the

    speed of light back out the terminals along the conductors, potentializing

    the surface charges and increasing the intercepted energy diverged into the

    conductors by the surface charges. Since a back-lash emf exists from the

    higher potential at the back-up and the beginning potential in the external

    circuit, current flows in the external circuit (1) in circuit-powering

    mode, and (2) with greater energy collected upon the electrons from the

    increased Poynting energy flow diverged into the circuit conductors.

     

    John puts in some electrons and potential and makes a negative resistor.

    The action of the negative resistor then overpotentializes both the

    battery-charging ions and the circuit-powering electrons. The vacuum

    furnishes the extra potential energy. So John now has lots more energy in

    the circuit than he himself put in, both to recharge the battery and power

    the load.

     

    The net result is that the system eats its cake and has it too, courtesy of

    having produced a negative resistor and tricked the active vacuum to

    momentarily give it lots of excess energy (potential energy). It collects

    some of that excess energy upon both the recharging ions and the circuit

    electrons back-forced to power the circuit. Note that the formation of the

    negative resistor actually produced in the external circuit a "back emf"

    which is of the circuit powering type, even though in the battery the ion

    current is still moving and accelerating in the charging position -

    - exactly opposed to the electron current!

     

    So the timing and negative resistor effect simultaneously introduce

    additional energy extracted from the vacuum to (1) the battery charging

    process, and (2) the load powering process in the external circuit.

     

    Then we deliberately cut off the pulse sharply, with the ions now moving in

    the charge direction and with the electrons in the external circuit

    powering the load. The sharp cutoff rate produces a very interesting effect

    here also, if we end it just precisely while most of the pile-up (and

    higher potential) still exists at the plate-ion interface. In that case,

    Lenz's law applies due to the sharp cutoff and it aids us, since

    momentarily the negative resistor potential is even further dramatically

    increased by the Lenz reaction! So even more potential energy momentarily

    surges out onto the circuit electrons in the "powering the circuit" mode,

    and even more potential energy simultaneously surges onto the ions in the

    "charging the battery" mode.

     

    The result of this second effect is that (1) the negative resistor is again

    increased, (2) even more energy is furnished from the vacuum to the

    battery-charging process, and (3) even more energy is furnished from the

    vacuum to the load-powering process.

     

    In short, the system suddenly and remarkably increases the negative

    resistor effect, self-regauging itself for the second consecutive time, and

    increasing the excess energy extracted from the vacuum!

     

    This second surge of excess energy comes directly from the vacuum, from the

    suddenly increased negative resistor, via those suddenly increased

    bidirectional longitudinal EM wave energy flows between the pile-up and

    every point in all the surrounding space. That's what a bidirectional set

    of wavepairs means; observable energy flows from the pile-up (source

    dipole) to every point in external space, and from every point in external

    space virtual (complex) energy flows to the source dipole.

     

    That is the second case where we cause the external circuit to be

    "regauged" and change its potential energy freely, and we cause the

    internal ions to be "regauged" and change their potential energy freely.

     

    Again we accent that electrodynamicists already assume that any EM system

    can freely change its energy at any time; it's called "regauging". It is

    inexplicable why electrodynamicists have not focused upon actually

    producing self-regauging circuits which asymmetrically discharge their

    freely increased energy, as John has done, so that the dissipated energy is

    used to recharge the battery while also powering the load. Instead, the

    electrodynamicists continue to give us regauging circuits which

    symmetrically discharge their freely increased energy, so that half the

    dissipated energy is used to destroy the source dipole of the generator or

    battery while the other half is dissipated in the external loads and

    losses.

     

    On the other hand, John uses half the excess regauging energy from the

    negative resistor to restore the battery (source) dipole, and uses the

    other half to power the load and losses simultaneously. So he

    asymmetrically discharges the free excitation energy received from the

    vacuum via the negative resistor.

     

    But back to John's battery process. Now we have the Lenz effect pulse

    finally removed and the ions moving in charging mode but slowing down now.

    Since the Lenz law effect dies rapidly, we have a rapid resumption of

    "draw" of electrons from the pile-up into the external circuit to power it.

    But for a bit, the ions only start to slow and have not yet stopped

    completely. They "overshoot" because of their sluggishness, and keep on

    charging the battery a moment longer. During this third moment, the

    external circuit is still being powered even though the battery is still in

    charging mode.

     

    When all these "excess energy" mechanisms are added, one finds that excess

    energy can be collected from the vacuum by the negative resistor and used

    appropriately to produce a system with a permissible overall COP1.0

    performance. The dramatic difference in John's method, from the

    conventional method, is that in John's method the same current through the

    load does not pass back through the back emf of the source dipole negative

    resistor to continually destroy it. On the contrary, he inverts the phase

    of the current through the source dipole negative resistor to continually

    restore it.

     

    There are several other schemes that can be used at this point. If the

    follow-on pulsing etc. is matched to again initiate the effects discussed,

    one can continue to draw power in the circuit while charging the battery,

    etc. for about a succession of the three periods of time: (1) the initial

    hysteresis pileup, formation of the negative resistor, and associated

    effects, (2) the following Lenz law reaction, increase of the negative

    resistor, and associated effects, and (3) the follow-on period of

    simultaneous charging the battery and powering the circuit from the pile-up

    while the overshoot of the ions is still slowing and ending.

     

    One trick John sometimes uses is to time the next pulse front to arrive

    just at the time that the ions are almost but not quite stopped in their

    "overshoot" charging mode and are preparing to reverse into discharge mode

    (following the electrons in the external circuit, which are already in that

    mode). With the exact timing, the whole situation starts over. There are

    several other variations that John has also used and found effective.

     

    In developing this methodology, John long ago built various controllers and

    timers, and experimented with a variety of pulses, pulse widths, and timing

    to get it all just right for a specific battery of interest. He had one

    little battery-powered motor -- an inefficient little beast with only about

    35-40% normal efficiency -- which continuously "ran off the battery"

    seemingly (actually, off the excess energy from the negative resistor

    created and manipulated in the battery) for a couple of years. The motor

    represented a "load" continually being driven by the excess energy

    extracted from the vacuum by the negative resistor continually created in

    the battery. He recharged the battery and ran the motor directly off vacuum

    energy, using the precise set of negative resistor effects just discussed.

 

This is part one of a two part article.

Note: Copied from wayback machine version of http://www.icehouse.net/john34/index101.htm website which is now gone. These articles are meant to preserve these notes and studies for future generations.
Explanation of John Bedini’s Formation of Negative Resistors in Batteries Pt1

Explanation of John Bedini’s Formation of Negative Resistors in Batteries Pt1

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