John has freely shared his work with many researchers. E.g., an excellent    microwave switching engineer named Bill Nelson visited John, observed some    of John's devices working, and reasoned correctly that the motor was just a    load and played no part in producing the excess energy. So Nelson and    another engineer used an electric light bulb as the load, adjusted the    pulses and timing appropriately, and produced a little unit which kept its    battery charged while continuously illuminating the light bulb. John shared    his research with Jim Watson, who succeeded in developing a version that    powered a much larger motor (8 kW), which he demonstrated at one of the    Tesla conferences at Colorado Springs. Watson and his family were later to    mysteriously drop out of all contact, so that even his own financial backer    could not find him. Ron Cole visited John's lab often, and Ron and John    built several successful and similar devices together.         There are several other powering schemes that can be worked out, using the    negative resistor created inside the battery by splitting the current    phases. E.g., with the ions moving in discharge mode and the circuit being    powered, one can again introduce a sharp voltage pulse of electrons for    charging, onto the circuit. This of course invokes Lenz's law, dramatically    increasing the powering of the circuit and the energy upon the ions driving    the circuit powering. Now the pile-up occurs even stronger, because the    ions keep bearing down in charging mode with increased energy, while the    electrons are forced to keep boring in much more densely to oppose them,    yet on the other end the electrons are even more strongly powering the    circuit momentarily because of the increased regauging energy. So the pile-    up becomes even higher than before, increasing the potential of the pile-up    even more due to the charge squeeze effect being greater. In other words,    we make an even greater negative resistor at that pile-up. This will    greatly amplify the potential out into the circuit, and also greatly    increase the potential on the powering ions, so that the ions have more    energy to give to the pile-up and to the circuit, and so do the electrons    in the circuit. Again, when the back-popping pulse sharply cuts off on    the trailing edge, one gets a Lenz law effect of further increase, etc.         There are a great variety of useful excess energy schemes which can be    worked out and applied, all using the excess energy freely obtained from    the vacuum by the negative resistor created and manipulated in the battery.         Once one understands John's negative resistor effect and how one gets it,    how one increases it, and how one sustains it or repeats it rapidly, then    one can adjust that motor (or other load) and that battery to function as a    self-powering system, perfectly permissible by the laws of physics and    thermodynamics. Because of the negative resistor effect and its extraction    of excess energy from the vacuum, this open dissipative system can output    more energy than the chemical energy that is dissipated in the battery. In    fact, the chemical energy is not dissipated, but remains, when the timing    and negative resistance effects are properly adjusted. Then everything just    runs off the vacuum energy from the negative resistor.         The point is this. The system has two major currents greatly differing in    their momentum and responses, that can be exploited to get these negative    resistor effects., So why do all our theorists just continue to assume a    simple current in and through the battery? If one ignores the duality,    one will just mush around any transient negative resistor effect and the    effect will not help, because one will get it wrong as much as one gets it    right.         But if we know what is happening in there, and if we deliberately    manipulate the phenomena as John Bedini has done for years, we can make a    battery recharge itself at the same time that it is powering the external    circuit, because of a negative resistor formed in the battery and properly    manipulated. Actually the energy extracted from the vacuum is powering both    the battery's recharging and the circuit's loads and losses.         We point out that these negative resistor effects can in fact occur in a    battery that is almost completely discharged, and John has also    demonstrated such specific negative resistor formation and operation in a    nearly uncharged battery for a sustained period of time.         For ease in building and timing the system, John often prefers to use two    batteries and switch between them. He will charge one as ostensibly an    additional part of the load, but all the while adjusting his pulses in the    charging process to dramatically open the process and get the injection of    a lot of excess vacuum energy in there via similar phenomenology to what we    described above. Meantime, the other battery is powering the circuit    normally. Then he just switches, and recharges the first battery including    evoking the negative resistor effects in it, while using power from the    second, recharged battery. The amount of excess charging energy he tricks    the vacuum into giving him while charging the battery, is free energy he    can then use to power the system when he switches the recharged battery    into system-powering position. He continues to switch, which yields a self-    powering open dissipative system, freely extracting all its energy from the    active vacuum. In that case, he makes the charging battery charge a lot    faster by the negative resistor effects than just with the simple energy he    inputs in his pulsing and in his normal charging currents to the battery.    He opens that battery-charging process and subsystem the way we    described, so that the vacuum furnishes more than half the charging input    energy.         Now for the skeptics who love to quote the second law of classical    thermodynamics. Classical thermodynamics is equilibrium thermodynamics.    While the system is open and receiving excess energy from the vacuum, it is    far from equilibrium and does not have to obey the old equilibrium    thermodynamics with its infamous second law. Indeed, classical    thermodynamics does not even apply, including the second law. Here is a    magic truth: The energy of an open system not in equilibrium is always    greater than the energy of the same system in equilibrium. Bye-bye second    law of thermodynamics for non-equilibrium systems.         In John's systems, the thermodynamics of a system far from equilibrium with    its active environment (in this case, the active vacuum) rigorously    applies. As is well-known in that kind of thermodynamics, such an open    disequilibrium system is permitted to (1) self-order, (2) self-oscillate or    self-rotate, (3) output more energy than the operator himself inputs (the    excess is just taken from the active environment, in this case the vacuum),    (4) power itself and a load also (in that case, all the energy is taken    from the active environment, in this case the active vacuum), and (5)    exhibit negentropy. John's devices have exhibited all five effects for    years.         In other words, the laws of physics already permit this to happen. We just    have to correct the foolish old flawed notion in electrodynamics of what    powers the external circuit. Batteries and generators do not use the energy    input to them (generator shaft energy) or available to them (chemical    energy in the battery) to power the external circuit! I fully explain that    in the IC-2000 paper. The chemical energy available in a battery and the    shaft energy input to a generator are dissipated only to restore the source    dipole that our closed current loop power systems keep destroying by    design.         No laws of nature, laws of physics, or laws of thermodynamics are violated    by John's novel negative resistor approach. The conservation of energy law    is obeyed at all times, as of course is recognized for open dissipative    systems. As an example, Ilya Prigogine was awarded a Nobel Prize for his    contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of systems similar to those    we are discussing.         I just wanted to set the record straight. You can make an overunity system    anytime you wish, with adroit use of a lead-acid battery (or two of them)    where you pay meticulous attention to the production and use of a negative    resistor inside the battery itself. The science is there and it is correct.    It's already in physics, but it isn't in the seriously flawed classical    electrodynamics. The full basis has been in the textbooks for decades, but    it has not been applied by EM power system designers. Instead, they    continue to ignore the active vacuum and the creation and manipulation of    negative resistors in batteries by current splitting and adroit    manipulation.         How many readers have thought of using the appreciably different response    times of the electron current and the ion current? How many professors have    thought of it? How many textbooks mention it? What EM text points out that    a scalar potential is actually a set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wave    energy flows, conditioning and organizing the entire vacuum? What paper in    a scientific journal contains it? One gets the point after only a moment's    reflection.         Now for the scientists, advanced engineers, and strategic planners. What is    needed to make all this quite rigorous is the development and usage of a    dual instrumentation system., We need to develop a proper instrumentation    system to measure and portray the ion current in the battery and its    actions, and simultaneously to measure and portray the electron current in    there at the interface. Then one can add the standard instruments to    monitor the electron current, voltage, phase angles, and power in the    external circuit.         Well, to get those two internal instrumentation systems, we need to    enlist some good electrochemists, who know about measuring things like    that, know about overpotentials on electrodes and plates and such,    understand all the internal chemical and ion reactions including their    energetics, and have worked out measurement techniques for such matters. To    an electrical engineer, the problem usually appears unsolvable (many, e.g.,    have no knowledge of overpotential theory, or of double surfaces theory, or    differentiating multiple current types in a battery, etc.).         We just need a really good straightforward and well-funded scientific    project by a good scientific team, to develop the instrumentation and    procedures, and then to perform enough experimentation to thoroughly    explore and measure the phenomenology in all its glory. Then the leading    theorists can produce a good theoretical model, including of the    interaction between vacuum energy and the circuit, while the developers    give us a good measurement and instrumentation system for precisely    measuring such systems. Once we get the experimentally-fitted theoretical    model and we have the instrumentation system, then we're off and running    with ordinary applied engineering, to design and build self-powering    battery-powered systems (actually as open systems adroitly extracting and    using energy from the ubiquitous vacuum) on a massive scale for the world    market.         Major universities and laboratories should fund such work as a matter of    great scientific priority. So should the National Science Foundation and    National Academy of Sciences, the Department of Energy, the private    research institutes, the Environmental Foundations, etc. If they do so,    then we'll all have overunity devices powering our automobiles and homes    and factories straightaway. And we will also take a giant stride toward    cleaning up the pollution of the biosphere.         We need, however, to stress again one shocking point above all else.    Batteries and generators do not themselves power their external circuits!    Please read that again, and do not miss the importance of what we are    saying. All that the dissipation of the shaft energy input to a generator    does, or dissipation of the chemical energy available in a battery does, is    perform work upon the internal charges to separate them and form the    negative resistor source dipole. Not a single joule of that dissipated    generator shaft energy or that battery's dissipated chemical energy goes    out onto the power line. Every electrical circuit and electrical load is    now and always has been powered by energy extracted directly from the    vacuum by the source dipole acting as a negative resistor due to its known    broken symmetry in the fierce vacuum energy flux.         To clearly understand that startling fact, we must temporarily set aside    the 136-year old flawed electrodynamics (Maxwell's seminal paper was given    in 1864), and turn to particle physics, because the old electrodynamicists    did not have an active vacuum in the equations, and it still isn't in    there.         In the latter 1950s, particle physicists discovered and experimentally    proved broken symmetry, and also that every dipole is a broken symmetry in    the continuous virtual energy exchange between vacuum and dipole charges.    The very definition of broken symmetry means that something virtual has    become observable. This means that part of that fierce, virtual, disordered    energy continually absorbed by the end charges of the dipole, is not re-    radiated as virtual, disordered energy -- but as observable, ordered    energy. In short, the ubiquitous source dipole is in fact a ubiquitous    negative resistor par excellence.         The source dipole, once made, is a true negative resistor that freely    extracts observable, usable field energy from the vacuum, and pours it out    through the terminals of the generator or battery. The outflowing energy    moves at light speed through all space surrounding the conductors of the    external circuit, and generally parallel to them. It's a tiny bit    convergent into the wires, because in the sheath or boundary layer of the    flow right down on the surface of the conductors, that part of the flow    strikes the surface charges and gets diverged into the wires to power up    the electrons and the circuit.         Every electrical circuit and every electrical load is and always has been    powered by energy extracted directly from the vacuum by the negative    resistor source dipole. That statement is fully justified in particle    physics, but not electrodynamics. The electrodynamicists and leaders of the    scientific community have refused to change the flawed foundations and gaps    in EM theory, even though a great deal has been learned since 1867 that    substantially changes the foundations assumptions used originally to    construct the theory.         The energy extracted by the source dipole from the vacuum sprays out of the    terminals of the battery or generator, filling all space around the    external conductors. A good illustration of this incredible energy flow is    shown in Kraus, Electromagnetics, Fourth Edition. The magnitude of the    energy flow extracted is so great as to boggle the imagination. In a simple    little circuit, it's about 10exp13 times as much as is intercepted in that    little sheath flow by the circuit and diverged into the circuit to power    it. Well, the enormity of that energy flow extracted from the vacuum by the    source dipole is totally mystifying and embarrassing, or it was highly    embarrassing back there in the 1880s.         And therein lies one of the greatest scientific faux pas of all time.         Energy flow through space was discovered independently by Heaviside and    Poynting and at about the same time. Poynting only thought of, and    accounted, the feeble little component of energy flow that actually entered    the circuit -- in short, the energy in that little sheath or strip flow    right down on the surface of the conductors. He never even imagined all    that nondiverged, nonintercepted energy component missing the circuit    entirely and just being wasted. But Poynting published prestigiously, while    Heaviside published more obscurely, and the theory of EM energy flow was    named after Poynting.         Heaviside realized the entire energy flow, including the huge nondiverged    component that entirely misses the circuit -- the component that Poynting    missed. Heaviside also corrected Poynting on the overall flow direction    (Poynting missed it by 90 degrees). Note that Maxwell was already dead at    the time.         Then the great Lorentz entered the energy flow picture, and confronted a    massive problem. How was one to account for the inexplicably enormous    nondiverged Heaviside energy flow that was pouring forth from those    terminals? And why did the circuit catch such a feeble little Poynting    fraction of the overall flow? That output is far more energy than even a    host of power systems contained or were thought to output. At the time    there was absolutely no conceivable way to account for the enormous    magnitude of the nondiverging energy flow component.         So Lorentz hit upon a stratagem. He eliminated the problem rather than    solving it. He reasoned that the nondiverged Heaviside component of the    energy flow was physically insignificant because it was not used in the    circuit and did not even enter it. So he integrated the energy flow vector    itself around a closed surface surrounding any little volume of interest.    Voila! That little trick discarded that bothersome huge nondiverged    Heaviside component of the energy flow (it's physically still there around    every circuit, but the circuit does not catch it and the electrodynamicists    just ignore it.). Lorentz's trick retained the Poynting component, and    since that is the energy that enters the circuit and is collected by it,    then it will be the energy that the circuit dissipates in its losses and    loads. So it will match our instrumental measurements, since we measure    dissipation. I have a 1902 reference by Lorentz where he did that little    integration trick, but it is in a book so he very probably did it earlier    in a scientific paper which I have yet to locate.         Anyway, following Lorentz the electrodynamicists just arbitrarily threw    away far more available EM energy associated with every circuit than they    retained. All the electrodynamicists fell into line, and they are still in    the same line after a century, marching along to Lorentz's cadence. The    neglected Heaviside energy flow is still physically there as a special    negentropic organization of the vacuum surrounding every circuit, just    waiting to be used. E.g., if you retroreflect the passed Heaviside energy    flow component, you can send it back across the circuit's surface charges    again and catch some more of it. Do it iteratively lots of times -- as in    intensely scattering optically active media -- and you will have    asymmetrical self-regauging and what has been called lasing without    population inversion. Or just resonate an intercepting charge -- as per    Letokhov and Bohren -- and it will sweep out a greater geometrical reaction    cross section and collect additional energy from the Heaviside component    (18 times as much more energy as an identical but static particle    collects). Letokhov has been publishing in all sorts of journals on this    subject since 1957. In an article in Contemporary Physics he has freely    called such excess energy collection and emission a process for a    Maxwell's demon -- in other words, a special kind of negative resistor.         The bottom line is that true overunity systems and negative resistors have    been built and demonstrated by several inventors and scientists such as    Bedini, Golden, Nelson, Watson, Letokhov, Bohren, Chung, Kron, Sweet, etc.    They do work, and in fact John can demonstrate one at any time. But instead    of valid scientific attention and courteous scientific treatment, the    scientists and inventors who have pioneered this legitimate overunity area    have been hounded, persecuted, vilified, etc. Careers of legitimate    scientists attempting to scientifically investigate this area have often    been ruined.         What is needed is not another group of grasping vulture capitalists and    stock scam artists seeking a fast fortune by selling stock and licenses to    the gullible public. What is needed is for the organized scientific    community to face its responsibility and its serious errors in    electrodynamics, and (1) correct the terribly flawed classical    electrodynamics as a matter of the highest scientific priority, including    at the foundations level, (2) fund legitimate overunity EM power system    investigators, scientists, engineers, and serious inventors before they    produce the final demonstration model; just as they have funded hot fusion    researchers for decades without the process ever adding a single watt to    the power line, (3) set aside at least 1% of the energy research budget for    high priority vacuum-energy-powered systems and phenomenology research, and    (4) recognize that conventional leading institutions which are bastions of    the present theory have zero experience, zero expertise and usually zero    institutional tolerance for the new overunity EM systems area. They do not    even have, and do not wish to develop, any legitimate theory of permissible    EM power systems as open systems in disequilibrium with the active vacuum,    freely using vacuum energy via the creation and manipulation of internal    negative resistors.         The scientific community -- including the leading scientific journals and    scientific associations -- now must honestly face its energy and biospheric    responsibilities and reassess its adversarial position on overunity EM    power systems. For decades the community has been a major part of the    vacuum energy problem, not part of the vacuum energy solution. It already    intercepts, controls, cuts up, prepares and sends down the energy    research budget packages, which all those research professors, sharp grad    students, and sharp young postdocs must seek funding from, in fierce    competition. The scientific community has already pre-determined what shall    and what shall not be allowed as permissible EM power system research. And    its woeful past record as an adversary of overunity EM power systems speaks    for itself. Its years of neglecting and opposing practical    electrodynamically-initiated vacuum energy extraction have resulted in the    ever-increasing pollution of the planet and a threat to the life and    survival of every species, including the human species itself.         It is scientifically unacceptable when the scientific community still    implicitly proclaims the source charge as ostensibly creating all that    enormous energy in its fields and potentials reaching across the universe    in all directions. In short, classical EM excludes the interaction of the    vacuum in its power system theory, and implies that the source charge    freely creates all that field energy and potential energy reaching across    the universe in all directions, and creates it right out of nothing. Yet    this same community habitually confronts the serious open dissipative    system EM researcher with the label of being a perpetual motion machine    nut. In our very worst nightmares, we could not begin to advocate such a    vast array of perpetual motion machines as does the present scientific    establishment, which advocates every source charge in the universe as a    perpetual motion machine of the grossest kind, ignoring a resolution of the    source charge problem that has been available for almost half a century in    particle physics.         Many skilled scientists have tried to get electrodynamics changed and the    flaws corrected -- including Nobelist Feynman and the great John Wheeler,    as well as many others such as Barrett, Evans, Cornille, Lehnert, Yang,    Mills, Vigier, de Broglie, etc. When Maxwell constructed his theory, the    electron and atom and atomic nucleus had not been discovered. The three    dozen electrodynamicists worldwide all believed in the material ether, so    to them there was no place in all the world where mass was absent. A    charge was just a piece of electric fluid, nothing more, nothing less.    Maxwell wrote a material fluid flow theory, and he also left out half the    energy, half the wave in space, etc. because he omitted Newtonian third law    reaction. Both mechanics and electrodynamics continue to omit one of the    most fundamental principles of all nature: that the effect acts back    through the observation process upon the cause. This principle does appear,    however, in general relativity. But in mechanics and electrodynamics, as a    result of this terrible omission, Newton's third law remains an effect    without a cause, mystically appearing out of nowhere and producing that    half of the energy and effect that Maxwell erroneously omitted.         The purpose of this long write-up is to set the record straight on what    John Bedini has been doing in his overunity battery powered devices,    including some that have been self-powering.         A final word on entropy. Simply put, entropy refers to increasing energy    disorder, where disorder is the effect. But the back-reaction of the effect    upon the cause, omitted from mechanics and electrodynamics but present in    general relativity, has not been taken into account. That principle means    that each time there is a disordering of energy, there is simultaneously a    reordering of an equal amount of energy. Entropy and negentropy occur as    twins, simply from the occurrence of the potential as a harmonic set of    bidirectional phase conjugate pairs of longitudinal EM waves. We usually    apply one set of those waves (the forward time set) and ignore the second    set (the time-reversed set or phase conjugate set). In every experiment    where an incoming EM wave from space affects a receiving wire antenna, not    only do the Drude electrons recoil, but also the positive nuclei recoil    with equal energy, though highly damped because of the enormous m/q ratio    of the nuclei. Eerily, hundreds of thousands of scientists and engineers    have been taught to measure the Drude electron recoil and state they are    measuring the incoming wave disturbance. Not so. They are measuring the    effect of half of the interaction; the other half of the cause omitted by    Maxwell interacted with the time-reversed nuclei, and produced the    Newtonian third law recoil forces. Every scientist will acknowledge the    accompanying recoil of the nuclei, then will mystically invoke a demon who    stands in the wire, observes the disturbance of the electrons, and kicks    the nuclei equally and oppositely. A similar situation occurs in a wire    transmitting antenna, where the recoiling nuclei also perturb the    surrounding spacetime with equal energy as do the perturbed Drude    electrons. Equal energy perturbation of ST means equal ST curvature    perturbation. So two ST perturbation waves are launched simultaneously, not    one. One is a time-forward wave, and one is a time-reversed wave, paired    together. Look at it this way. The vacuum is a giant potential, which means    it can inherently be decomposed into Whittaker's bidirectional longitudinal    EM wavepair sets. Any perturbation of the vacuum must a priori disturb    those bidirectional waves, thereby producing bidirectional wavepair    disturbances, not plucked string waves. There are no taut physical    strings in the vacuum! Maxwell omitted the time-reversed half of the vacuum    disturbance, because the atom, nucleus, and electron had not even been    discovered at the time, and because he assumed the taut string wave a    priori. The reasoning was just that a single electrical fluid under tensile    stress was perturbed.         Anyway, I wanted to explain what John Bedini is doing in that lead acid    battery, and why his systems really do work. He has done enormous    experimentation for years. He's built many units which exhibited the    overunity effect due to creating a negative resistor in the battery, and    some which also exhibited the self-powering effect. With a little proper    scientific funding and support, a team of scientists working with Bedini    can quickly produce working overunity EM power systems, the theoretical    model, and the instrumentation system. Bedini-type systems are easily and    cheaply produced in conventional manufacturing plants. Development and    availability of such Bedini-type negative resistor systems will start a    rapid, world-wide resolution of the so-called energy problem. That will    also start a rapid clean-up of this suffering biosphere that is now being    poisoned and destroyed by hydrocarbon combustion waste products at an ever-    increasing rate. It will also revolutionize the living standards of the    developing nations and peoples.         In spite of the previous and present vilification of the overunity    researchers by the scientific community, I have great faith in the    scientific method, once it is permitted to function and be funded. But just    now, our own scientific community continues to impose seriously flawed    theories and approaches upon the laboratories and scientists, and actively    blocks the innovative overunity EM power systems research that could save    this planet and humanity. We can do better than that, and we must do better    than that. Else in a few more decades none of the rest of the scientific    works will matter anyway, as the nature we are now destroying turns upon    this upstart humanity and destroys us all.         Thanks, Jerry, for bearing with this very long write-up and explanation of    Bedini's method. It is of great importance -- to the experimenters, the    inventors, the scientists, our nation, and every human being on this    planet.         Very best wishes,         Tom Bearden Note: Copied from wayback machine version of http://www.icehouse.net/john34/index101.htm website which is now gone. These articles are meant to preserve these notes and studies for future generations. - Alternate Energy - 39412AlternateEnergyCollection

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Explanation of John Bedini’s Formation of Negative Resistors in Batteries Pt2

John has freely shared his work with many researchers. E.g., an excellent

    microwave switching engineer named Bill Nelson visited John, observed some

    of John's devices working, and reasoned correctly that the motor was just a

    load and played no part in producing the excess energy. So Nelson and

    another engineer used an electric light bulb as the load, adjusted the

    pulses and timing appropriately, and produced a little unit which kept its

    battery charged while continuously illuminating the light bulb. John shared

    his research with Jim Watson, who succeeded in developing a version that

    powered a much larger motor (8 kW), which he demonstrated at one of the

    Tesla conferences at Colorado Springs. Watson and his family were later to

    mysteriously drop out of all contact, so that even his own financial backer

    could not find him. Ron Cole visited John's lab often, and Ron and John

    built several successful and similar devices together.

     

    There are several other powering schemes that can be worked out, using the

    negative resistor created inside the battery by splitting the current

    phases. E.g., with the ions moving in discharge mode and the circuit being

    powered, one can again introduce a sharp voltage pulse of electrons for

    charging, onto the circuit. This of course invokes Lenz's law, dramatically

    increasing the powering of the circuit and the energy upon the ions driving

    the circuit powering. Now the pile-up occurs even stronger, because the

    ions keep bearing down in charging mode with increased energy, while the

    electrons are forced to keep boring in much more densely to oppose them,

    yet on the other end the electrons are even more strongly powering the

    circuit momentarily because of the increased regauging energy. So the pile-

    up becomes even higher than before, increasing the potential of the pile-up

    even more due to the "charge squeeze" effect being greater. In other words,

    we make an even greater "negative resistor" at that pile-up. This will

    greatly amplify the potential out into the circuit, and also greatly

    increase the potential on the "powering" ions, so that the ions have more

    energy to give to the pile-up and to the circuit, and so do the electrons

    in the circuit. Again, when the "back-popping" pulse sharply cuts off on

    the trailing edge, one gets a Lenz law effect of further increase, etc.

     

    There are a great variety of useful excess energy schemes which can be

    worked out and applied, all using the excess energy freely obtained from

    the vacuum by the negative resistor created and manipulated in the battery.

     

    Once one understands John's negative resistor effect and how one gets it,

    how one increases it, and how one sustains it or repeats it rapidly, then

    one can adjust that motor (or other load) and that battery to function as a

    self-powering system, perfectly permissible by the laws of physics and

    thermodynamics. Because of the negative resistor effect and its extraction

    of excess energy from the vacuum, this open dissipative system can output

    more energy than the chemical energy that is dissipated in the battery. In

    fact, the chemical energy is not dissipated, but remains, when the timing

    and negative resistance effects are properly adjusted. Then everything just

    runs off the vacuum energy from the negative resistor.

     

    The point is this. The system has two major currents greatly differing in

    their momentum and responses, that can be exploited to get these negative

    resistor effects., So why do all our theorists just continue to assume a

    "simple current" in and through the battery? If one ignores the duality,

    one will just mush around any transient negative resistor effect and the

    effect will not help, because one will get it wrong as much as one gets it

    right.

     

    But if we know what is happening in there, and if we deliberately

    manipulate the phenomena as John Bedini has done for years, we can make a

    battery recharge itself at the same time that it is powering the external

    circuit, because of a negative resistor formed in the battery and properly

    manipulated. Actually the energy extracted from the vacuum is powering both

    the battery's recharging and the circuit's loads and losses.

     

    We point out that these negative resistor effects can in fact occur in a

    battery that is almost completely discharged, and John has also

    demonstrated such specific negative resistor formation and operation in a

    nearly uncharged battery for a sustained period of time.

     

    For ease in building and timing the system, John often prefers to use two

    batteries and switch between them. He will charge one as ostensibly an

    additional part of the load, but all the while adjusting his pulses in the

    charging process to dramatically open the process and get the injection of

    a lot of excess vacuum energy in there via similar phenomenology to what we

    described above. Meantime, the other battery is powering the circuit

    normally. Then he just switches, and recharges the first battery including

    evoking the negative resistor effects in it, while using power from the

    second, recharged battery. The amount of excess charging energy he tricks

    the vacuum into giving him while charging the battery, is "free" energy he

    can then use to power the system when he switches the recharged battery

    into system-powering position. He continues to switch, which yields a self-

    powering open dissipative system, freely extracting all its energy from the

    active vacuum. In that case, he makes the charging battery charge a lot

    faster by the negative resistor effects than just with the simple energy he

    inputs in his pulsing and in his "normal charging currents" to the battery.

    He "opens" that battery-charging process and subsystem the way we

    described, so that the vacuum furnishes more than half the charging input

    energy.

     

    Now for the skeptics who love to quote the second law of classical

    thermodynamics. Classical thermodynamics is equilibrium thermodynamics.

    While the system is open and receiving excess energy from the vacuum, it is

    far from equilibrium and does not have to obey the old equilibrium

    thermodynamics with its infamous second law. Indeed, classical

    thermodynamics does not even apply, including the second law. Here is a

    magic truth: The energy of an open system not in equilibrium is always

    greater than the energy of the same system in equilibrium. Bye-bye second

    law of thermodynamics for non-equilibrium systems.

     

    In John's systems, the thermodynamics of a system far from equilibrium with

    its active environment (in this case, the active vacuum) rigorously

    applies. As is well-known in that kind of thermodynamics, such an open

    disequilibrium system is permitted to (1) self-order, (2) self-oscillate or

    self-rotate, (3) output more energy than the operator himself inputs (the

    excess is just taken from the active environment, in this case the vacuum),

    (4) power itself and a load also (in that case, all the energy is taken

    from the active environment, in this case the active vacuum), and (5)

    exhibit negentropy. John's devices have exhibited all five effects for

    years.

     

    In other words, the laws of physics already permit this to happen. We just

    have to correct the foolish old flawed notion in electrodynamics of what

    powers the external circuit. Batteries and generators do not use the energy

    input to them (generator shaft energy) or available to them (chemical

    energy in the battery) to power the external circuit! I fully explain that

    in the IC-2000 paper. The chemical energy available in a battery and the

    shaft energy input to a generator are dissipated only to restore the source

    dipole that our closed current loop power systems keep destroying by

    design.

     

    No laws of nature, laws of physics, or laws of thermodynamics are violated

    by John's novel negative resistor approach. The conservation of energy law

    is obeyed at all times, as of course is recognized for open dissipative

    systems. As an example, Ilya Prigogine was awarded a Nobel Prize for his

    contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of systems similar to those

    we are discussing.

     

    I just wanted to set the record straight. You can make an overunity system

    anytime you wish, with adroit use of a lead-acid battery (or two of them)

    where you pay meticulous attention to the production and use of a negative

    resistor inside the battery itself. The science is there and it is correct.

    It's already in physics, but it isn't in the seriously flawed classical

    electrodynamics. The full basis has been in the textbooks for decades, but

    it has not been applied by EM power system designers. Instead, they

    continue to ignore the active vacuum and the creation and manipulation of

    negative resistors in batteries by current splitting and adroit

    manipulation.

     

    How many readers have thought of using the appreciably different response

    times of the electron current and the ion current? How many professors have

    thought of it? How many textbooks mention it? What EM text points out that

    a scalar potential is actually a set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wave

    energy flows, conditioning and organizing the entire vacuum? What paper in

    a scientific journal contains it? One gets the point after only a moment's

    reflection.

     

    Now for the scientists, advanced engineers, and strategic planners. What is

    needed to make all this quite rigorous is the development and usage of a

    dual instrumentation system., We need to develop a proper instrumentation

    system to measure and portray the ion current in the battery and its

    actions, and simultaneously to measure and portray the electron current in

    there at the interface. Then one can add the standard instruments to

    monitor the electron current, voltage, phase angles, and power in the

    external circuit.

     

    Well, to get those two "internal" instrumentation systems, we need to

    enlist some good electrochemists, who know about measuring things like

    that, know about overpotentials on electrodes and plates and such,

    understand all the internal chemical and ion reactions including their

    energetics, and have worked out measurement techniques for such matters. To

    an electrical engineer, the problem usually appears unsolvable (many, e.g.,

    have no knowledge of overpotential theory, or of double surfaces theory, or

    differentiating multiple current types in a battery, etc.).

     

    We just need a really good straightforward and well-funded scientific

    project by a good scientific team, to develop the instrumentation and

    procedures, and then to perform enough experimentation to thoroughly

    explore and measure the phenomenology in all its glory. Then the leading

    theorists can produce a good theoretical model, including of the

    interaction between vacuum energy and the circuit, while the developers

    give us a good measurement and instrumentation system for precisely

    measuring such systems. Once we get the experimentally-fitted theoretical

    model and we have the instrumentation system, then we're off and running

    with ordinary applied engineering, to design and build self-powering

    battery-powered systems (actually as open systems adroitly extracting and

    using energy from the ubiquitous vacuum) on a massive scale for the world

    market.

     

    Major universities and laboratories should fund such work as a matter of

    great scientific priority. So should the National Science Foundation and

    National Academy of Sciences, the Department of Energy, the private

    research institutes, the Environmental Foundations, etc. If they do so,

    then we'll all have overunity devices powering our automobiles and homes

    and factories straightaway. And we will also take a giant stride toward

    cleaning up the pollution of the biosphere.

     

    We need, however, to stress again one shocking point above all else.

    Batteries and generators do not themselves power their external circuits!

    Please read that again, and do not miss the importance of what we are

    saying. All that the dissipation of the shaft energy input to a generator

    does, or dissipation of the chemical energy available in a battery does, is

    perform work upon the internal charges to separate them and form the

    negative resistor source dipole. Not a single joule of that dissipated

    generator shaft energy or that battery's dissipated chemical energy goes

    out onto the power line. Every electrical circuit and electrical load is

    now and always has been powered by energy extracted directly from the

    vacuum by the source dipole acting as a negative resistor due to its known

    broken symmetry in the fierce vacuum energy flux.

     

    To clearly understand that startling fact, we must temporarily set aside

    the 136-year old flawed electrodynamics (Maxwell's seminal paper was given

    in 1864), and turn to particle physics, because the old electrodynamicists

    did not have an active vacuum in the equations, and it still isn't in

    there.

     

    In the latter 1950s, particle physicists discovered and experimentally

    proved broken symmetry, and also that every dipole is a broken symmetry in

    the continuous virtual energy exchange between vacuum and dipole charges.

    The very definition of "broken symmetry" means that something virtual has

    become observable. This means that part of that fierce, virtual, disordered

    energy continually absorbed by the end charges of the dipole, is not re-

    radiated as virtual, disordered energy -- but as observable, ordered

    energy. In short, the ubiquitous source dipole is in fact a ubiquitous

    negative resistor par excellence.

     

    The source dipole, once made, is a true negative resistor that freely

    extracts observable, usable field energy from the vacuum, and pours it out

    through the terminals of the generator or battery. The outflowing energy

    moves at light speed through all space surrounding the conductors of the

    external circuit, and generally parallel to them. It's a tiny bit

    convergent into the wires, because in the "sheath" or boundary layer of the

    flow right down on the surface of the conductors, that part of the flow

    strikes the surface charges and gets diverged into the wires to power up

    the electrons and the circuit.

     

    Every electrical circuit and every electrical load is and always has been

    powered by energy extracted directly from the vacuum by the negative

    resistor source dipole. That statement is fully justified in particle

    physics, but not electrodynamics. The electrodynamicists and leaders of the

    scientific community have refused to change the flawed foundations and gaps

    in EM theory, even though a great deal has been learned since 1867 that

    substantially changes the foundations assumptions used originally to

    construct the theory.

     

    The energy extracted by the source dipole from the vacuum sprays out of the

    terminals of the battery or generator, filling all space around the

    external conductors. A good illustration of this incredible energy flow is

    shown in Kraus, Electromagnetics, Fourth Edition. The magnitude of the

    energy flow extracted is so great as to boggle the imagination. In a simple

    little circuit, it's about 10exp13 times as much as is intercepted in that

    little "sheath flow" by the circuit and diverged into the circuit to power

    it. Well, the enormity of that energy flow extracted from the vacuum by the

    source dipole is totally mystifying and embarrassing, or it was highly

    embarrassing back there in the 1880s.

     

    And therein lies one of the greatest scientific faux pas of all time.

     

    Energy flow through space was discovered independently by Heaviside and

    Poynting and at about the same time. Poynting only thought of, and

    accounted, the feeble little component of energy flow that actually entered

    the circuit -- in short, the energy in that "little sheath or strip" flow

    right down on the surface of the conductors. He never even imagined all

    that nondiverged, nonintercepted energy component missing the circuit

    entirely and just being wasted. But Poynting published prestigiously, while

    Heaviside published more obscurely, and the theory of EM energy flow was

    named after Poynting.

     

    Heaviside realized the entire energy flow, including the huge nondiverged

    component that entirely misses the circuit -- the component that Poynting

    missed. Heaviside also corrected Poynting on the overall flow direction

    (Poynting missed it by 90 degrees). Note that Maxwell was already dead at

    the time.

     

    Then the great Lorentz entered the energy flow picture, and confronted a

    massive problem. How was one to account for the inexplicably enormous

    nondiverged Heaviside energy flow that was pouring forth from those

    terminals? And why did the circuit catch such a feeble little Poynting

    fraction of the overall flow? That output is far more energy than even a

    host of power systems contained or were thought to output. At the time

    there was absolutely no conceivable way to account for the enormous

    magnitude of the nondiverging energy flow component.

     

    So Lorentz hit upon a stratagem. He eliminated the problem rather than

    solving it. He reasoned that the nondiverged Heaviside component of the

    energy flow was "physically insignificant" because it was not used in the

    circuit and did not even enter it. So he integrated the energy flow vector

    itself around a closed surface surrounding any little volume of interest.

    Voila! That little trick discarded that bothersome huge nondiverged

    Heaviside component of the energy flow (it's physically still there around

    every circuit, but the circuit does not catch it and the electrodynamicists

    just ignore it.). Lorentz's trick retained the Poynting component, and

    since that is the energy that enters the circuit and is collected by it,

    then it will be the energy that the circuit dissipates in its losses and

    loads. So it will match our instrumental measurements, since we measure

    dissipation. I have a 1902 reference by Lorentz where he did that little

    integration trick, but it is in a book so he very probably did it earlier

    in a scientific paper which I have yet to locate.

     

    Anyway, following Lorentz the electrodynamicists just arbitrarily threw

    away far more available EM energy associated with every circuit than they

    retained. All the electrodynamicists fell into line, and they are still in

    the same line after a century, marching along to Lorentz's cadence. The

    neglected Heaviside energy flow is still physically there as a special

    negentropic organization of the vacuum surrounding every circuit, just

    waiting to be used. E.g., if you retroreflect the passed Heaviside energy

    flow component, you can send it back across the circuit's surface charges

    again and catch some more of it. Do it iteratively lots of times -- as in

    intensely scattering optically active media -- and you will have

    asymmetrical self-regauging and what has been called "lasing without

    population inversion". Or just resonate an intercepting charge -- as per

    Letokhov and Bohren -- and it will sweep out a greater geometrical reaction

    cross section and collect additional energy from the Heaviside component

    (18 times as much more energy as an identical but static particle

    collects). Letokhov has been publishing in all sorts of journals on this

    subject since 1957. In an article in Contemporary Physics he has freely

    called such excess energy collection and emission a process for a

    "Maxwell's demon" -- in other words, a special kind of negative resistor.

     

    The bottom line is that true overunity systems and negative resistors have

    been built and demonstrated by several inventors and scientists such as

    Bedini, Golden, Nelson, Watson, Letokhov, Bohren, Chung, Kron, Sweet, etc.

    They do work, and in fact John can demonstrate one at any time. But instead

    of valid scientific attention and courteous scientific treatment, the

    scientists and inventors who have pioneered this legitimate overunity area

    have been hounded, persecuted, vilified, etc. Careers of legitimate

    scientists attempting to scientifically investigate this area have often

    been ruined.

     

    What is needed is not another group of grasping "vulture capitalists" and

    stock scam artists seeking a fast fortune by selling stock and licenses to

    the gullible public. What is needed is for the organized scientific

    community to face its responsibility and its serious errors in

    electrodynamics, and (1) correct the terribly flawed classical

    electrodynamics as a matter of the highest scientific priority, including

    at the foundations level, (2) fund legitimate overunity EM power system

    investigators, scientists, engineers, and serious inventors before they

    produce the final demonstration model; just as they have funded hot fusion

    researchers for decades without the process ever adding a single watt to

    the power line, (3) set aside at least 1% of the energy research budget for

    high priority vacuum-energy-powered systems and phenomenology research, and

    (4) recognize that conventional leading institutions which are bastions of

    the present theory have zero experience, zero expertise and usually zero

    institutional tolerance for the new overunity EM systems area. They do not

    even have, and do not wish to develop, any legitimate theory of permissible

    EM power systems as open systems in disequilibrium with the active vacuum,

    freely using vacuum energy via the creation and manipulation of internal

    negative resistors.

     

    The scientific community -- including the leading scientific journals and

    scientific associations -- now must honestly face its energy and biospheric

    responsibilities and reassess its adversarial position on overunity EM

    power systems. For decades the community has been a major part of the

    vacuum energy problem, not part of the vacuum energy solution. It already

    intercepts, controls, "cuts up," prepares and sends down the energy

    research budget packages, which all those research professors, sharp grad

    students, and sharp young postdocs must seek funding from, in fierce

    competition. The scientific community has already pre-determined what shall

    and what shall not be allowed as permissible EM power system research. And

    its woeful past record as an adversary of overunity EM power systems speaks

    for itself. Its years of neglecting and opposing practical

    electrodynamically-initiated vacuum energy extraction have resulted in the

    ever-increasing pollution of the planet and a threat to the life and

    survival of every species, including the human species itself.

     

    It is scientifically unacceptable when the scientific community still

    implicitly proclaims the "source charge" as ostensibly creating all that

    enormous energy in its fields and potentials reaching across the universe

    in all directions. In short, classical EM excludes the interaction of the

    vacuum in its power system theory, and implies that the "source charge"

    freely creates all that field energy and potential energy reaching across

    the universe in all directions, and creates it right out of nothing. Yet

    this same community habitually confronts the serious open dissipative

    system EM researcher with the label of being a "perpetual motion machine

    nut". In our very worst nightmares, we could not begin to advocate such a

    vast array of perpetual motion machines as does the present scientific

    establishment, which advocates every source charge in the universe as a

    perpetual motion machine of the grossest kind, ignoring a resolution of the

    source charge problem that has been available for almost half a century in

    particle physics.

     

    Many skilled scientists have tried to get electrodynamics changed and the

    flaws corrected -- including Nobelist Feynman and the great John Wheeler,

    as well as many others such as Barrett, Evans, Cornille, Lehnert, Yang,

    Mills, Vigier, de Broglie, etc. When Maxwell constructed his theory, the

    electron and atom and atomic nucleus had not been discovered. The three

    dozen electrodynamicists worldwide all believed in the material ether, so

    to them there was no place in all the world where mass was absent. A

    "charge" was just a piece of electric fluid, nothing more, nothing less.

    Maxwell wrote a material fluid flow theory, and he also left out half the

    energy, half the wave in space, etc. because he omitted Newtonian third law

    reaction. Both mechanics and electrodynamics continue to omit one of the

    most fundamental principles of all nature: that the effect acts back

    through the observation process upon the cause. This principle does appear,

    however, in general relativity. But in mechanics and electrodynamics, as a

    result of this terrible omission, Newton's third law remains an effect

    without a cause, mystically appearing out of nowhere and producing that

    half of the energy and effect that Maxwell erroneously omitted.

     

    The purpose of this long write-up is to set the record straight on what

    John Bedini has been doing in his overunity battery powered devices,

    including some that have been self-powering.

     

    A final word on entropy. Simply put, entropy refers to increasing energy

    disorder, where disorder is the effect. But the back-reaction of the effect

    upon the cause, omitted from mechanics and electrodynamics but present in

    general relativity, has not been taken into account. That principle means

    that each time there is a disordering of energy, there is simultaneously a

    reordering of an equal amount of energy. Entropy and negentropy occur as

    twins, simply from the occurrence of the potential as a harmonic set of

    bidirectional phase conjugate pairs of longitudinal EM waves. We usually

    apply one set of those waves (the forward time set) and ignore the second

    set (the time-reversed set or phase conjugate set). In every experiment

    where an incoming EM wave from space affects a receiving wire antenna, not

    only do the Drude electrons recoil, but also the positive nuclei recoil

    with equal energy, though highly damped because of the enormous m/q ratio

    of the nuclei. Eerily, hundreds of thousands of scientists and engineers

    have been taught to measure the Drude electron recoil and state they are

    measuring the "incoming wave" disturbance. Not so. They are measuring the

    effect of half of the interaction; the other half of the cause omitted by

    Maxwell interacted with the time-reversed nuclei, and produced the

    Newtonian third law recoil forces. Every scientist will acknowledge the

    accompanying recoil of the nuclei, then will mystically invoke a demon who

    stands in the wire, observes the disturbance of the electrons, and kicks

    the nuclei equally and oppositely. A similar situation occurs in a wire

    transmitting antenna, where the recoiling nuclei also perturb the

    surrounding spacetime with equal energy as do the perturbed Drude

    electrons. Equal energy perturbation of ST means equal ST curvature

    perturbation. So two ST perturbation waves are launched simultaneously, not

    one. One is a time-forward wave, and one is a time-reversed wave, paired

    together. Look at it this way. The vacuum is a giant potential, which means

    it can inherently be decomposed into Whittaker's bidirectional longitudinal

    EM wavepair sets. Any perturbation of the vacuum must a priori disturb

    those bidirectional waves, thereby producing bidirectional wavepair

    disturbances, not "plucked string" waves. There are no taut physical

    strings in the vacuum! Maxwell omitted the time-reversed half of the vacuum

    disturbance, because the atom, nucleus, and electron had not even been

    discovered at the time, and because he assumed the taut string wave a

    priori. The reasoning was just that a single electrical fluid under tensile

    stress was perturbed.

     

    Anyway, I wanted to explain what John Bedini is doing in that lead acid

    battery, and why his systems really do work. He has done enormous

    experimentation for years. He's built many units which exhibited the

    overunity effect due to creating a negative resistor in the battery, and

    some which also exhibited the self-powering effect. With a little proper

    scientific funding and support, a team of scientists working with Bedini

    can quickly produce working overunity EM power systems, the theoretical

    model, and the instrumentation system. Bedini-type systems are easily and

    cheaply produced in conventional manufacturing plants. Development and

    availability of such Bedini-type negative resistor systems will start a

    rapid, world-wide resolution of the so-called "energy" problem. That will

    also start a rapid clean-up of this suffering biosphere that is now being

    poisoned and destroyed by hydrocarbon combustion waste products at an ever-

    increasing rate. It will also revolutionize the living standards of the

    developing nations and peoples.

     

    In spite of the previous and present vilification of the overunity

    researchers by the scientific community, I have great faith in the

    scientific method, once it is permitted to function and be funded. But just

    now, our own scientific community continues to impose seriously flawed

    theories and approaches upon the laboratories and scientists, and actively

    blocks the innovative overunity EM power systems research that could save

    this planet and humanity. We can do better than that, and we must do better

    than that. Else in a few more decades none of the rest of the scientific

    works will matter anyway, as the nature we are now destroying turns upon

    this upstart humanity and destroys us all.

     

    Thanks, Jerry, for bearing with this very long write-up and explanation of

    Bedini's method. It is of great importance -- to the experimenters, the

    inventors, the scientists, our nation, and every human being on this

    planet.

     

    Very best wishes,

     

    Tom Bearden

 

Note: Copied from wayback machine version of http://www.icehouse.net/john34/index101.htm website which is now gone. These articles are meant to preserve these notes and studies for future generations.
Explanation of John Bedini’s Formation of Negative Resistors in Batteries Pt2

Explanation of John Bedini’s Formation of Negative Resistors in Batteries Pt2

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